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  • It is imperative that teachers understand Indigenous lesson plans must be considered holistically. That means that the Indigenous teachings and intentions that are part of the language and culture must be considered. Non-Indigenous teachers should consider consulting Indigenous advisors to ensure that the integrity of the content is not unintentionally lost or compromised.


A. Aboriginal Perspectives 

  • Video material featuring Aboriginal people and cultural activities as a base for constructing teaching resources and we invite teachers to use these resources. We also encourage teachers to use this video material to construct their own lessons.
  • The University of Regina has conducted workshops with teachers from grades 3 to 6 to help them include an Aboriginal perspective in their mathematics lessons (see example at: . On this web site are the lessons, background material on the Aboriginal themes for the lessons, and a description of the material in the kits that the teachers received at the workshops.
  • Included is a collection of Aboriginal games which provide a rich source of material for the construction of lessons. 

B. Empowering the Spirit Pedagogy   

  •  PEDAGOGY that embraces Indigenous ways of knowing are fostered by approaches to teaching and learning that include purposeful thinking about people, places and processes.
  •  The word Etuaptmumk, or Two-Eyed Seeing, communicates the belief that the most beneficial outcome occurs when we consider multiple perspectives in understanding and exploring ideas. Two-Eyed Seeing helps us to acknowledge the idea of wholeness, a part of many Indigenous knowledge systems: seeing things through Indigenous perspectives (represented as one whole eye), while also seeing western ways of knowing (also represented as a whole eye), inviting these two eyes to work together as they do in binocular vision.
  •  A weaving back and forth between knowledge systems that embrace a flow between the strengths of the two ways, to best suit the circumstances, strengthens the approach further.

C. Infusing Indigenous Perspectives in K-12 Teaching

 D. Videos

 E. Patterns

F. Targeted Grade Level

G. Quilts

H. Beads

I. General

 J. The Adventures of Small Number:  

  • Dr. Veselin Jungic, Simon Fraser University (Math Catcher) “Small Number” is the name of a fictitious young Indigenous boy who is adventurous in his First Nations land. He gets into a lot of mischief. All the stories involve Western mathematics embedded in authentic Indigenous contexts, for example, Alberta’s Siksika First Nation, and coastal First Nations.
  • The following animated stories/videos may easily be transferred to Saskatchewan, or inspire a mathematics teacher to develop a parallel authentic Saskatchewan Indigenous math story.
    • Indigenous stories and videos: (The Stories/Movies – Math Catcher).
    • Small Number Counts to 100: This story is situated in the Siksika First Nation of the Blackfoot Confederation in southern Alberta. The story can be shown to elementary school students as a counting practice/puzzle or as a pattern recognition problem. For high school students it can be a way to introduce arithmetic progressions, modular addition, or an idea of number systems with a base different than 10.
    • Small Number and the Basketball Tournament: Small Number demonstrates how a basic understanding of combinatorics can help in all aspects of life, even basketball! The context is the Blackfoot Confederation.  
    • Small Number and the Skateboard Park: When Small Number has trouble with math, he usually asks his sister for help.  But this Sunday he has a geometry problem that looks very difficult, and he decides to ask his cousin, Full Angle, who studies mathematics at the university.
    • Small Number and the Kit Foxes: On Blackfoot Confederation land, “moonlight streamed in through the front window and lit up the room where Small Number, his sister Perfect Number, and their cousins were sitting around the fireplace talking about the new pair of kit foxes that had been settled that day near the rocks beside the creek way out by the furthest edge of their grandparents’ ranch.”
    • Small Number and the Old Arrowhead: On an ocean beach under the tent, Small Number’s older sister, Perfect Number, pointed to something on the table that looked like a polished stone. “This is a ground slate point. It was probably used as the head of an arrow.” She took the stone and very gently started rotating it in her hand. “Very few people can say that they have held an object that was used by our ancestors thousands of years ago.” QUESTION: How can an artifact reveal its age? {For high school, this could lead to a connection with Wanuskewin Heritage Park in Saskatoon}



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